"As the years went on and our knowledge grew, we discovered a surprising pattern in our data: each Indo-European people is by cultural inheritance either "mycophobe" or "mycophile," that is, each people either rejects and is ignorant of the fungal world or knows it astonishingly well and loves it. Our voluminous and often amusing evidence in support of this thesis fills many sections of our new book, and it is there that we submit our case to the scholarly world. The great Russians, we find, are mighty mycophiles, as are also the Catalans, who possess a mushroomic vocabulary of more than 200 names. The ancient Greeks, Celts and Scandinavians were mycophobes, as are the Anglo-Saxons. There was another phenomenon that arrested our attention: wild mushrooms from earliest times were steeped in what the anthropologists call mana, a supernatural aura.
Saprotrophic any organism, esp a fungus or bacterium, that lives and feeds on dead organic matter Also called saprobe saprobiont.
mushrooms are hard to identify, cause the environment can change the shape of them
a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species
Secotioid fungi are an intermediate growth form between mushroom-like hymenomycetes and closed bag-shaped gasteromycetes, where an evolutionary process of gasteromycetation has started but not run to completion. Secotioid fungi may or may not have opening caps, but in any case they often lack the vertical geotropic orientation of the hymenophore needed to allow the spores to be dispersed by wind, and the basidiospores are not forcibly discharged or otherwise prevented from being dispersed (e.g. gills completely inclosed and never exposed as in the secotioid form of Lentinus tigrinus)—note—some mycologists do not consider a species to be secotioid unless it has lost ballistospory.
The corticioid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota typically having effused, smooth basidiocarps (fruit bodies) that are formed on the undersides of dead tree trunks or branches. They are sometimes colloquially called crust fungi or patch fungi. Originally such fungi were referred to the genus Corticium ("corticioid" means Corticium-like) and subsequently to the family Corticiaceae, but it is now known that corticioid species are not closely related. The fact that they look similar is an example of adaptive evolution. Since they are often studied as a group, it is convenient to retain the informal (non-taxonomic) name of "corticioid fungi" and this term is frequently used in research papers and other texts.
The Corticiaceae are a family of fungi in the order Corticiales
The gasteroid fungi are a group of fungi in the Basidiomycota. Species were formerly placed in the obsolete class Gasteromycetes Fr. (literally "stomach fungi"), or the equally obsolete order Gasteromycetales Rea, because they produce their spores inside their basidiocarps (fruit bodies) rather than on an outer surface. The class is artificial, however, since species—which include puffballs, earthstars, stinkhorns, and false truffles—are not closely related to each other. Because they are often studied as a group, it has been convenient to retain the informal (non-taxonomic) name of "gasteroid fungi".
A bolete is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus that is clearly differentiated from the stipe, with a spongy surface of pores (rather than gills) on the underside of the pileus. "Bolete" is also the English common name for fungal species having this kind of morphology.
The boletes are classified in the Boletales; however, not all members of that order are boletes. Recent discoveries in the micromorphology and molecular phylogeny of this group have established that it also contains a large number of agarics, gasteromycetes, and other fruiting body morphologies. Similar pore surface is found in polypores, but these species usually lack the overall physical structure of boletes, many have much firmer (often woody) flesh, and lack the microscopic characters of boletes.
Generally, the term refers to members of the genus Boletus, but as superficially similar fungi have been placed in other genera, many of them have retained the common name. These include:
Jelly fungi are a paraphyletic group of several heterobasidiomycete fungal orders from different classes of the subphylum Agaricomycotina: Tremellales, Dacrymycetales, Auriculariales and Sebacinales. These fungi are so named because their foliose to irregularly branched fruiting body is, or appears to be, the consistency of jelly. Actually, many are somewhat rubbery and gelatinous. When dried, jelly fungi become hard and shriveled; when exposed to water, they return to their original form.
A number of the jelly fungi can be eaten raw; poisonous jelly fungi are rare. However, many species have an unpalatable texture or taste. They may or may not be sought in mushroom hunting due to their taste, which is described as similar to that of soil. However, some species, Tremella fuciformis for example, are not only edible but prized for use in soup and vegetable dishes.
(no3 medicinal mushroom in the world-david wolfe)
("All of the medicinal mushrooms, except Cordyceps and Agaricus blazei, grow on trees in their natural habitat" ((lol this was what many mycologists, health enthusiasts thought while psychedelics like psilocybin cubensis were still illegal and outlawed, again LOL)
Some studies report immune-stimulating effects, while others report immune-suppressing activity of Cordyceps sinensis.
How Is This Possible?
One hypothesis is that different strains of Cordyceps sinensis can either suppress or stimulate the immune system. In fact, one strain of Cordyceps sinensis strains was reported to be as potent of an immune-suppressant as the powerful drug, Cyclosporin A (commonly used to inhibit the immune system from rejecting a transplanted organ.)
You still may not be safe even if you use a Cordyceps sinensis product that claims to contain an immune-stimulating strain, such as the widely studied Paecilomyces hepiali strain (also known as “CS-4’); CS-4 has been shown to have immune-stimulating effects in numerous studies. However…some Cordyceps Sinensis products contain more than one strain (see study.) If two strains are present, one strain being immune-stimulating (e.g. CS-4) and the other strain being immune-suppressing, the overall effect on the immune system is uncertain. In the best-case scenario, the immune-stimulating strain will outweigh the immune-suppressing activity of the other strain; the overall effect will likely be less immune stimulating than if you had been taking a pure immune-stimulating strain.
So, how do you find out what strain is in each Cordyceps sinensis product?
Unfortunately, many of the manufacturers currently do not indicate the strain(s) of Cordyceps sinensis on their packaging! Furthermore, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not monitor supplements for their quality control. Quality control is left up to the individual manufacturers to ensure that all strains are identified, and potency and consistency is maintained between each batch.
The Bottomline: My recommendation is to, at a bare minimum, select a Cordyceps sinensis product from a manufacturer that clearly indicates the strain type(s) used in their supplement.
Pic by ; magicmycology , depicts psilcoybe cubensis.
Basidiocarps (mushrooms/fruiting bodies off of mycelium masses) are classified into various types of growth forms based on the degree of differentiation into a stipe, pileus, and hymenophore, as well as the type of hymenophore, if present.
Growth forms include:
An agaric is a type of fungal fruiting body characterized by the presence of a pileus (cap) that is clearly differentiated from the stipe (stalk), with lamellae (gills) on the underside of the pileus. "Agaric" can also refer to a basidiomycete species characterized by an agaric-type fruiting body. An archaic usage of the word agaric meant 'tree-fungus' (after Latin agaricum); however, that meaning was superseded by the Linnaean interpretation in 1753 when Linnaeus used the generic name Agaricus for gilled mushrooms.
Most species of agarics are classified in the Agaricales, however, this type of fruiting body is thought to have evolved several times independently, hence the Russulales, Boletales, Hymenochaetales, and several other groups of basidiomycetes also contain agaric species. Older systems of classification place all agarics in the Agaricales, and some (mostly older) sources still use "agarics" as a common name for the Agaricales. Contemporary sources now tend to use the term euagarics when referring only to members of the Agaricales. "Agaric" is also sometimes used as a common name for members of the genus Agaricus, as well as for members of other genera, for example, Amanita muscaria is sometimes called "fly agaric".
Polypores are a group of fungi that form fruiting bodies with pores or tubes on the underside (see Delimitation for exceptions). They are a morphological group of basidiomycetes like gilled mushrooms and hydnoid fungi, and not all polypores are closely related to each other. Polypores are also called bracket fungi, and their woody fruiting bodies are called conks.
Most polypores inhabit tree trunks or branches consuming the wood, but some soil-inhabiting species form mycorrhiza with trees. Polypores and their relatives corticioid fungi are the most important agents of wood decay. Thus they play a very significant role in nutrient and carbon cycle of forest ecosystems.
Over a thousand polypore species have been described to science, but large part of the diversity is still unknown even in relatively well-studied temperate areas. Polypores are much more diverse in old natural forests with abundant dead wood than in younger managed forests or plantations. Consequently a number of species have declined drastically and are under threat of extinction due to logging and deforestation.
Polypores are used in traditional medicine, and they are actively studied for their medicinal value and various industrial applications. Several polypore species are serious pathogens of plantation trees and major causes of timber spoilage.
Specimens and identification help
J: looks like an Amanita on the left, definitely dont eat!
C:right, probably Russulla silvicola
D: were these actually found growing side by side? I doubt it but lovely picture...could be a crab brittlegill, Russula xerampelina & a tawny grisette, Amanita fulva..but as has been said many times on many mushroom sites...its impossible to tell exactly from a picture...especially if its just of the caps.
Ben Couwenberg: Amanita fulva is one of the few edible species in the genus Amanita.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amanita_fulv
J:theres no way to tell for sure from this immature specimen
Britt A Bunyard: The one on the left does appear to be an Amanita. Most Amanitas are pretty easy to ID, if you you have the entire mushroom in hand, including the very bottom (with dirt) of the base of the stem. Also, Amanita fulva is indeed edible but I would not say "one of the very few species in the genus"...actually there are many edible and popularly collected (all over the world) species of Amanita. Indeed, you would probably not be able to name a genus with more edible species (actively collected, sold in markets, and eaten) than the genus Amanita. Crazy, huh? Now, having said that, it goes without saying that the genus also contains species that are responsible for 90% of the mushroom deaths each year in the world as well. So, you should never eat mushrooms that you're unsure of (and trusting your life to a cell phone image and Facebook experts could be dangerous).
C: last weekend. Also found B. edulis, the mildly poisonous & brick red pored B.satanas, which stains blue heavily, & several others in the surrounding genus' , Tylopilus, Gyroporus ect.
Muscarine has been isolated from fruiting bodies, but the quantities are believed to be far too small to account for its toxic effects. More recently, the glycoprotein bolesatine has been isolated. Bolesatine is a protein synthesis inhibitor, and, when given to mice, causes hepatic blood stasis and thrombosis.[1
Terence McKenna - Mushrooms are an Extraterrestrial Probe?
The large angular pores of Polyporus alveolaris, the hexagonal-pored polypore
The cup fungus Sarcoscypha austriaca
Basidiocarps of Craterellus tubaeformis, a cantharelloid fungus.
Gills of the Fly Agaric Amanita muscaria
Basidiocarps of Ramaria rugosa, a coral fungus
club fungus and coral fungus – erect fruiting body without a distinct stalk and cap, either unbranched (club fungus) or profusely branched (coral fungus).
Psilocin was first reported in this species in Benedict et al., 1962, and a few years later, Leung and Paul would report the related compound baeocystin, isolated from saprophytic culture, as well as the demethyl analogue norbaeocystin. Beug and Bigwood (1981) also reported on the concentrations of these compounds in Psilocybe baeocystis using reverse-phase HPLC and thin-layer chromatography. Concentration ranges for psychoactive compounds from these studies were reported to be 0.15–0.85% psilocybin, up to 0.59% psilocin, and up to 0.10% baeocystin.
1 photo of Psilocybe fasciata which has a white stem and the caps sometimes become a bluish green.
Preferred Synonym(s): Psilocybe venenata
Psilocybe venenata is a species of mushroom in the Strophariaceae family. The mushroom contains the medicinal compound psilocybin.
Psilocybe subaeruginosa Cleland is an extremely potent psychedelic mushroom of Australasia, which has psilocybin and psilocin as its main active compounds.
Alkaloid content Psilocybin has been isolated from this species in 0.45% yield. In the same study, psilocin was not detectable with the analytical methods used (chromatographic separation and UV spectroscopy), and was estimated to be present at less than 1% of the psilocybin content.
In contrast to this, results from a M.App.Sci thesis, which were never published in the peer-reviewed literature, showed that Psilocybe subaeruginosa collected in Victoria, Australia contained up to 1.93% psilocybin. Given that Psilocybe azurescens contains up to 1.8% psilocybin, some populations of P. subaeruginosa could be even more potent.
Taxonomy: The species was described scientifically by Steven H. Pollock and Mexican mycologist and Psilocybe authority Gastón Guzmán in a 1978 Mycotaxon publication. According to Paul Stamets, Pollock skipped a "boring taxonomic conference" near Tampa, Florida to go mushroom hunting, and found a single specimen growing in a sand dune, which he did not recognize. Pollock later cloned the specimen and produced a pure culture, which remains widely distributed today. The type specimen is kept at the herbarium of the Instituto Politécnico Nacional in Mexico. Guzmán classified P. tampanensis in his section Mexicanae, a grouping of related Psilocybe species characterized primarily by having spores with lengths greater than 8 micrometers.
Recreational use Psilocybe tampanensis contains the psychedelic compounds psilocin and psilocybin, and is consumed for recreational and entheogenic purposes. The species was found to be one of the most popular psychoactive mushrooms confiscated by German authorities in a 2000 report, behind Psilocybe cubensis, Psilocybe semilanceata, and Panaeolus cyanescens. The alkaloid content in the confiscated samples ranged from not detectable to 0.19% psilocybin, and 0.01 to 0.03% psilocin. According to mycologist Michael Beug, dried fruit bodies can contain up to 1% psilocybin and psilocin; in terms of psychoactive potency, Stamets considers the mushroom "moderately to highly active".
The psychoactive compounds are also present in the sclerotia: in one analysis, the levels of psilocybin obtained from sclerotia ranged from 0.31% to 0.68% by dry weight, and were dependent upon the composition of the growth medium. Sclerotia are sold under the nickname "philosopher's stones". They have been described as "resembling congealed muesli", and having a somewhat bitter taste similar to walnut. Strains existing as commercial cultivation kits sold originally in countercultural drug magazines are derived from the original fruit body found by Pollock in Florida. Methods were originally developed by Pollock, and later extended by Stamets in the 1980s to cultivate the sclerotia on a substrate of rye grass (Lolium), and on straw. Sclerotia prepared in this way take from 3 to 12 weeks to develop. Pollock was granted a US patent in 1981 for his method of producing sclerotia.
A sclerotium (plural sclerotia, from Greek skleros - hard) is a compact mass of hardened fungal mycelium containing food reserves. One role of sclerotia is to survive environmental extremes. In some higher fungi such as ergot, sclerotia become detached and remain dormant until favorable growth conditions return. Sclerotia initially were mistaken for individual organisms and described as separate species until Louis René Tulasne proved in 1853 that sclerotia are only a stage in the life cycle of some fungi. Further investigation showed that this stage appears in many fungi belonging to many diverse groups. Sclerotia are important in the understanding of the life cycle and reproduction of fungi, as a food source, as medicine and in agricultural blight management.
Examples of fungi that form sclerotia are ergot (Claviceps purpurea), Polyporus tuberaster, Psilocybe mexicana, Sclerotium delphinii and many species in Sclerotiniaceae. The plasmodium of slime molds can form sclerotia in adverse environmental conditions.
David Heinig why dont you let them open?
S: I came upon these whilst walking in the Yorkshire Dales today - can anyone help with identification - are they Liberty Caps? Many thanks in advance :-)
Roy Nichols: afraid not, too early.
Rob McGowan: and wrong colour and lack of blueing under gills...
Alfred Savinelli: paneoles campela
Ciaran Shaman: Unfortunately not. Alfred's bang on the money with Panaeolus. September/October for the Liberty's.
Richard Pharo: These grow in animal dung a lot. A good way to tell the difference is the stalks. These and most others have a flimsy, easily snappable stalk, whereas Libs are a lot bendier and tougher.
Alan Rockefeller: Panaeolus papilionaceus
Stephen Sproates: Thanks a bunch everyone!
Andre Lange: get a spore print!
how do I do a spore print?
Jessica Little Bear: SPORE PRINT separate the stem from the cap without breaking the cap, you can snip the stems right where they connect with the cap if its too flimsy to just pop off.
place the cap, gill side down, on that there piece of paper, and then check in a few hours if you have sporification.
make sure you do this some place with no drafts/winds. works best with caps just mature enough to sporificate ^-^ its real purty
I heard "Biggest mushroom so far discovered is Hericium abietis"
Here's another shot of a clearly recognizable Amanita rubescens with distinct blushing stipe:Cornelius Farrell
Psilocybe allenii is a species of agaric fungus in the family Strophariaceae. Described as new to science in 2012, it is named after John W. Allen, who provided the type collection. It is found in the western United States from Los Angeles, California to Seattle, Washington, most commonly within 10 miles (16 km) of the Pacific coast. The fruit bodies (mushrooms) grow on rotting wood, especially wood chips used in garden landscaping. The caps of the mushrooms are brown to buff, broadly convex to flattened and have a diameter up to 9 cm (3.5 in), while the white stems are up to 9 cm (3.5 in) long and 0.7 cm (0.3 in) thick. As a bluing species in the genus Psilocybe, P. allenii contains the psychoactive compounds psilocin and psilocybin, and it is consumed recreationally for its hallucinogenic properties. It is closely related to Psilocybe cyanescens, from which it differs macroscopically by the lack of a wavy cap margin.
cubes an identification help
Tom Hannigan Do you have any where the spores fully matured? I wanna say some Pan/Cop species, but without knowing if the spores will be black or purple/brown, it's all just SWAG.
M: I made a print off from the same batch. The spores were black,
Tom Hannigan Coplandia tropicalis http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Panaeolus_tropicalis?
M: Here's another pic
Tom Hannigan Very cool
M Really small fruits and no veil. BTW, my first try growing fungus.
Monica Serene Gauer nice job!! make new prints!
M: Thanks! Will definitely make more prints.
Sterling Gray it really looks like a strain cubensis
Sterling Gray A Strain that is
Tom Hannigan Black spores, no veil.
M: The caps get really light as they mature too.
Sterling Gray look firmiliar ? the veil will disappear like that as for black spores I don't know man I still say they are cubes and the print is maybe just thick
M:It's possible. The print is hella thick.
M: Here's a light print.
Tom Hannigan That looks purple to me. I'm gonna have to change my SWAG.
M: Aha! Pardon my partial-colorblindness...
Tom Hannigan no harm, no foul!
Sterling Gray ya I stand by my Id
M: Thanks, guys!
Sterling Gray anytime
The Most Bizarre and Beautiful Mushrooms on Earth
1) Bleeding Tooth
The unusual appearance of these mushrooms has earned the species several descriptive common names, including strawberries and cream, the bleeding Hydnellum, the bleeding tooth fungus, the red-juice tooth, and the Devil's tooth.
Hydnellum peckii is an inedible fungus, and a member of the genus Hydnellum of the family Bankeraceae. It produces spores on the surface of tooth-like vertical spines that hang from the underside of the fruit bodies. It is found in North America and Europe and, in the last few years, was also discovered in Iran (2008) and Korea (2010). Though they don't seem to be poisonous, they have an extremely bitter taste and so are inedible.By: Richard Stephen Marchese
Beautiful mushroom Rhodotus palmatus
Those jelly spots are intense!
This uncommon species of mushrooms has a circumboreal distribution, and has been collected in eastern North America, northern Africa, Europe, and Asia; declining populations in Europe have led to its appearance in over half of the European fungal Red Lists of threatened species.
Depending on the source consulted, the edibility of Rhodotus palmatus is typically listed as unknown or inedible. The species has no distinguishable odor, and a "bitter" taste, although one early description referred to the taste as "sweet". Different peope, different tastes..
The mushroom has a moderate antimicrobial potential, killing of bacillus subtilis pathogens!
Psilocybin is present in varying concentrations in over 200 species of Basidiomycota mushrooms. In a 2000 review on the worldwide distribution of psilocybin mushrooms, Gastón Guzmán and colleagues considered these to be distributed amongst the following genera: Psilocybe (116 species), Gymnopilus (14), Panaeolus (13), Copelandia (12), Hypholoma (6), Pluteus (6) Inocybe (6), Conocybe (4), Panaeolina (4), Gerronema (2), Agrocybe (1), Galerina (1) and Mycena (1). Guzmán increased his estimate of the number of psilocybin-containing Psilocybe to 144 species in a 2005 review. The majority of these are found in Mexico (53 species), with the remainder distributed in the US and Canada (22), Europe (16), Asia (15), Africa (4), and Australia and associated islands (19). In general, psilocybin-containing species are dark-spored, gilled mushrooms that grow in meadows and woods of the subtropics and tropics, usually in soils rich in humus and plant debris. Psilocybin mushrooms occur on all continents, but the majority of species are found in subtropical humid forests. Psilocybe species commonly found in the tropics include P. cubensis and P. subcubensis. P. semilanceata—considered by Guzmán to be the world's most widely distributed psilocybin mushroom—is found in Europe, North America, Asia, South America, Australia and New Zealand, but is entirely absent from Mexico.
Shrooms + St. John's wort = nice trip into the mind without visuals:
Basidiocarps are classified into various types of growth forms based on the degree of differentiation into a stipe, pileus, and hymenophore, as well as the type of hymenophore, if present.
Growth forms include:
- Patrick Mor try b caapiJuly 7 at 10:11am · Like · 1
- Dee Are Dub-Ya caapi with what? Shrroms?July 7 at 11:16am · Like
- Jessica Little Bear what form of saint johns wart, tincture, tea? its in bloom here right nowJuly 7 at 12:09pm · Like
- Patrick Mor yuuupJuly 7 at 12:10pm · Like
- James Kurrtis Duly noted. Great idea !!July 7 at 1:09pm via mobile · Like · 1
- Aku Korhonen St. Johns wort was consumed as tea.July 7 at 7:43pm via mobile · Like · 1
- Christopher Hunter Or some rue.July 8 at 5:48am via mobile · Like · 1
- Andre Lange interesting---good idea.
"a strong tea that contains psilocin and psilocybin, and is flavored with natural strawberry teas. I use a porcelain "tea-strainer" that is very durable--size (fits into a standard coffee cup:) Take about 3-4 of the large fruiting bodies and put them into empty coffee cup. Press down and grind them into mush. When mush, with a spoon remove the mush and put THAT into the inside of the tea strainer.....but put a strawberry teabag or two in the strainer FIRST, so the mush rooms dont ooze out. Now boil water and place the now full tea strainer into an empty large coffee cup and slowly pour the boiling water thru the filtrate (the tea bags and mush) Pour until cup is full at edge. Let it steep for about 30 minutes and drink. Enjoy your voyages."
Basidiocarps are classified into various types of growth forms based on the degree of differentiation into a stipe, pileus, and hymenophore, as well as the type of hymenophore, if present.
Growth forms include:
- jelly fungus – fruiting body is jelly-like.
- club fungus and coral fungus – erect fruiting body without a distinct stalk and cap, either unbranched (club fungus) or profusely branched (coral fungus).
- polypore – underside of the fruiting body usually consists of tubes; otherwise very variable, usually wood-inhabiting
- tooth fungus or hydnoid fungus - underside of the fruiting body composed of spines or teeth
- corticioid fungus - the underside of the fruiting body is usually smooth or with spines (vs. hydnoid fungi) but not poroid nor gilled; typically effused without caps
- cantharelloid fungus – fruiting body with shallow fold-like gills running over most of the lower surface of the fruiting body and not much differentiation between the stalk and cap.
- gasteromycete or "gastroid fungus" – fruiting body has a ball-like shape and in which the hymenophore has become entirely enclosed on the inside of the fruiting body.
- false truffle – like a gasteromycete, however, but with a hypogeous (underground) fruiting body.
- secotioid fungus – like a gasteromycete, but with a stalk. Though to be an evolutionarily intermediate stage between a gasteromycete and an agaric.
- agaric or gill fungi – fruiting body with caps, gills, and (usually) a stalk.
- bolete – fleshy fruiting body with a cap, a stalk, and tubes on the underside.